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The second moon landing plan is a bit difficult

Time:2022-11-29 04:33:53 source:ucutxmastrees.com author:Poultry Read:164次
The second moon landing plan is a bit difficult

Posted August 31, 2022, 15 min read Author: Michael Greshko Photography: Dan Winters Compiled: Angel NASA has temporarily canceled the launch of the Moon mission rocket Artemis 1. This is not the first setback for the United States to restart its second moon landing, and probably not the last. The fog is clearing at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 398. After years of preparation, the Space Launch System rocket used in the Artemis 1 program is ready to undergo a series of pre-launch tests. The rocket "Space Launch System" (SLS) used in the US moon landing program was originally scheduled to launch on August 29 this year, but was temporarily cancelled due to a transmitter failure. If NASA can solve the problem quickly, SLS will fly as soon as September 2, launching a new capsule called Orion, orbiting the moon for 6-19 days and returning to Earth. This is the first step in the United States' "return to the moon" plan. As early as May 2024, four astronauts will complete the round-trip journey between the earth and the moon on Artemis 2. If all goes well, in 2025, Artemis 3 will once again send humans to the lunar surface. An early model of the SLS is placed in a wind tunnel at NASA's Marshall Space Center. But manned is the next stage. Currently, the SLS system and the Orion capsule need to pass a series of tests first. Artemis 1 is equipped with the largest ever 4 rocket engines and 2 solid fuel boosters. In the 500 seconds of its climb into space, the SLS will reach a speed of 28,000 kilometers per hour, which can be called a real "moving like a rabbit". At a test facility in Utah, U.S., the SLS solid rocket booster emits flames and smoke during a test. Each booster will generate more than 1,600 tons of thrust during launch. To leave Earth, SLS has to overcome more than just gravity. The project faces enormous challenges: years of delays, billions of dollars in over-budget costs, criticism from all walks of life, and a sense of urgency from competitors—private companies may soon be able to get even less price to launch a similar rocket. The new "arrow" was born inside NASA's huge aircraft assembly building. The SLS rocket and the "Orion" capsule have been fully assembled, waiting for the rehearsal test including refueling and countdown process. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA not only has the famous grilled chicken wings, but also NASA's Michoud assembly base, where the core of the SLS rocket was born. In the words of a Boeing engineer: "Currently, to get out of Earth's orbit, you can only go through the Michaud base." To keep the SLS fuselage strong and light, the interior of the aluminum plate was partially hollowed out, and finely ground triangular leaves were used. shaped "equal grid" structure to strengthen. Boeing oversaw the construction of the SLS core, where panels were welded, fuel tanks, cylinders and other components were created, welds were inspected, insulation was sprayed, avionics were installed, and after numerous additions and adjustments, the finished product was shipped to Florida for assembly. At NASA's Marshall Space Center, welders use a large machine to join the panels that make up the SLS tapered interstage adapter. In addition to welders, the team required to assemble a massive rocket includes a variety of different mechanics: the insulation blankets for the engine section are custom sewn, the insulating foam needs to be sprayed by hand, and the markings on the side of the rocket to track direction and speed are hand-crafted. draw. "When you think of a rocket, you think of rocket scientists, but they're a very small part of the manufacturing team," said Boeing engineer Gertjejansen, who simulated liftoff at NASA's Marshall Space Center for a systems integration experiment. room, the team of engineers used a sophisticated computer system to simulate hundreds of thousands of SLS launches. To study the flight performance of the SLS, engineers used a computer system to create a virtual rocket that accurately simulated the launch process. The system simulates the forces acting on the rocket throughout the launch, up to 10,000 times per second, adjusting the virtual rocket accordingly every 20 milliseconds. The real SLS isn't in the sky yet, and the system has made hundreds of thousands of virtual flights. The road ahead for the troubled SLS has not been smooth sailing. Since 2004, the U.S. manned spaceflight program has been launched, postponed, cancelled, restarted, and now Congress has funded two different rocket projects, one is the manned boarding of the International Space Station signed with SpaceX and Boeing, and the other It's the SLS moon landing program. A doll in the command room of the Orion capsule on Artemis 1, wearing sensors for measuring pressure and cosmic rays. For SLS, the past few years can be described as frequent difficulties. The Michaud base has been hit by tornadoes and hurricanes successively. The new crown epidemic has caused many setbacks. The failures and deviations in the construction process have also caused the project to lose a lot of time. and money. According to NASA's budget released in 2014, the design and construction of the SLS is expected to cost $9.1 billion and is expected to launch in November 2018. The relevant US government departments found that the cost of SLS has risen to nearly 11.8 billion US dollars, which has been delayed for more than three years. On March 17, 2022, the rocket used by the moon landing program "Artemis 1" was transported out of the aircraft assembly building for the first time for the first round of tests. To make matters worse, SLS isn't the only cash-burning part of the Artemis program. NASA's Office of Inspector estimates that the entire project will cost about $93 billion from 2011 to 2025. Critics say the huge cost stems from the fact that many of Artemis' construction methods and business plans are outdated. But proponents insist that Artemis' budget isn't too high, and it's all a necessary price to pay for the future of space exploration. If the SLS rocket used in the moon landing program "Artemis 1" can overcome many difficulties, the 98-meter-high rocket will be used to launch the "Orion" capsule to complete a new lunar exploration mission. Although it has been delayed for several years, it will still take more time to complete the SLS. At the same time, NASA is facing competitive pressure: SpaceX, the rocket company founded by "Iron Man" Elon Musk, debuted its own heavy-lift rocket in 2018, a partially reusable "Falcon", which can The moon launch 18-22 tons of payload, the price is as low as 97 million US dollars. In addition, SpaceX is building a larger rocket "Starship" that can be fully reused. If Starship is successful, it will be able to launch large payloads at unprecedented low cost. However, the "Starship" has not yet been tested. For now, the SLS is the only rocket capable of sending humans to the moon. For John Blevins, NASA's chief rocket engineer, the "unique" represented the unique ambition of the human species: "Think about how we might describe the Phoenicians, or the ancient Egyptians— You'll use art, use science, and ultimately look at the explorations they enable." History will have a lot to say about SLS and humanity's next space adventure. Mid-Autumn Festival & Teacher's Day--Special Area If you read this article

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