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70 million bison hunted in 50 years

Time:2023-03-27 13:27:52 author:Zoo Read:736次
70 million bison hunted in 50 years

The American bison herds on the North American savannah are the largest terrestrial animal groups ever recorded on Earth, and a bison herd can stretch to 80 kilometers long and 32 kilometers wide. But by 1890, there were only 635 bison left. The American bison is often referred to as the buffalo, although it is not related in any way to the real buffalo. The bison migrated from Asia to the Americas 400,000 years ago and is now the largest mammal in North America: an adult male bison can weigh up to 1 ton, be 3 meters long and stand 1.8 meters at the shoulder. The American bison is the most efficient animal for forage utilization. Their teeth have a large upper section, which greatly increases the amount of food they can grind with each chew, and their teeth are very long, preventing them from being worn out quickly. 40% of the bison's body weight is in the digestive organs: their fourth stomach can hold 340 liters of forage, and a single mouthful of forage takes more than 90 hours to digest. American bison ruminates like domestic cattle, but can get more than 1/3 more nutrients from the same amount of food. Since the last ice age, the only natural predators of the bison have been bears, wolves and humans. Many archaeologists now believe that hunting by early humans led to the gathering of bison into large groups. A certain size of the herd means that there needs to be an energetic bull to stand up as the leader. Highly capable bulls have large heads, strong forelegs and shoulders, and darker, velvety curly hairs. The bulls in heat run as fast as they can, attacking each other, bumping their heads, and the banging can be heard from 1.2 kilometers away. There would be no prairie without bison manure: manure improves the soil and increases its fertility. The greater the number of bison, the more lush the grass grows, which in turn feeds more bison. The savannah grass is fragrant and used to flavor vodka, but it thrives on bison dung. Since the railroad, human beings have started the massacre of American bison. In the mid-19th century, workers building railroads across the United States needed meat for food. During the same period, British soldiers believed that "buffalo" hides made the best boots. The hunters can get a cowhide for $2 and a tongue for 25 cents. A full-time bison killer, such as Western police officer Wyatt Earp and U.S. Army Scout Cody nicknamed "Buffalo Bill", can kill hundreds of bison in an hour. The entertainment of shooting bison on moving trains was popular at the time. It wasn't until 1890 that this situation came to an end. Only one-fifth of the bison that was hunted was sold as a commodity, and the rest rotted in the wild. In total, the 50-year bison trade has brought only $20 million in economic benefits to the United States, a paltry 28 cents per head of bison. Humans lead to massacres of extinct species for economic gain. Local tribes depend on bison for every aspect of their lives. The U.S. government's encouragement to wipe out the bison population has led to a major purge of the species on this precious prairie. Today, the bison population has repopulated to 350,000. Most of them are used for tourist photographs or are farmed for meat. Bison meat has a higher nutritional value than regular beef: more than a third of the protein and 90% less fat. The offspring of crosses between domestic cattle and bison are called "crossbreeds" or "peefolos" and are also raised for meat.


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