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It's time to understand how scary the next category 14 typhoon is

Time:2023-02-03 09:03:58 author:Poultry Read:326次
It's time to understand how scary the next category 14 typhoon is

The strong typhoon Meihua is here. Are you ready for the storm? Compilation: Angie, Red Queen Tips: It takes about 15 minutes to read this article. This year's No. 12 typhoon "Plum Blossom" is approaching. This time, the "Plum Blossom", which is classified as a "strong typhoon", has a maximum wind force of 42 m/s near the center, which is designated as level 14. How fierce is the level 14 "Plum Blossom"? At 42 meters per second, it's slightly faster than a baseball player throwing a fastball; The speed is about 80% of your falling speed. Florida International University used a large fan to simulate the effect of a typhoon, which is what it would look like when the house was blown away by winds of about 224 kilometers per hour. Image source: NSF-NHERI WALL OF WIND, FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY, MIAMI, FLORIDA. What is the concept of a typhoon of 14th grade? (WMO) recommends to use the average wind speed within 10 minutes at a height of 10 meters above the sea level near the storm center for classification, while my country uses the average wind speed measured every 2 minutes to calculate, so the measured average wind speed will be slightly higher than the WMO definition. high. The strong typhoon "Plum Blossom" was determined to be level 14, and the intensity is expected to continue to increase. The Central Meteorological Observatory has issued an orange typhoon warning on the 13th. It is expected that "Plum Blossom" will bring strong winds and heavy rainfall to many coastal areas in eastern and southeastern my country. Source: China Weather Network Although storms are classified according to wind strength, the level of classification is not necessarily related to the destructive power of storms. External factors such as the topography of the affected area and the total amount of precipitation brought by the cyclone can affect the severity of the disaster, and weaker storms can also cause great damage. The wind itself is not the most dangerous part of the storm disaster. Storms often bring storm surges that cause coastal flooding and endanger people's lives and property. A 15cm high storm surge (not reaching the ankles) makes it difficult for a person to stand, and a 50cm high storm surge can knock cars off the road. Storm surge "record". In 2018, a ship in the United States was washed out of port by the three-meter-high waves of Hurricane Florence, drifted several kilometers along the river, and finally crashed into a hotel. PHOTO: GREG KAHN, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Atlantic Beach, USA, Hurricane Florence hits a restaurant on shore with huge waves. PHOTO: TRAVIS LONG, THE NEWS & OBSERVER VIA AP When Super Typhoon Haiyan ravaged the Philippines in November 2013, most of the damage it caused was due to surges. At that time, the 7.6-meter-high storm surge washed away a large number of buildings, causing hundreds of thousands of houses to collapse, more than 6,000 people killed, and the two cities of Guiuan and Tacloban in ruins. In addition, the torrential rain brought by typhoons can also cause floods. In 2007, the strong typhoon "Manyi" caused 500 mm of precipitation locally in Japan, and even caused landslides. PHOTO: YOMIURI SHIMBUN VIA AP IMAGES Typhoon, hurricane, cyclone Who's who? The typhoon, hurricane, and cyclone that we often see in weather forecasts are actually the same type of storm, collectively called "tropical cyclone" by scientists. Typhoons raging in the Western Pacific (Eastern Hemisphere), hurricanes in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific (Western Hemisphere), and cyclones in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused severe damage in Louisiana and other places in the United States, and more than 80% of the city of New Orleans was flooded. Two weeks after the disaster, residents still have to wade across the street. PHOTO: MICHAEL LEWIS, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC In general, storms with winds of 74 mph (119 kph) are classified as tropical cyclones; when winds reach 111 mph (178.4 kph), they are hurricanes or typhoon; it becomes a super typhoon when the wind speed increases to 150 miles per hour (about 241.4 kilometers per hour). Climate change could lead to more storms, says MIT meteorologist Kerry Emanuel, no matter what the name is, storms need the same elements to form: storm clouds, above 27 The sea surface temperature in degrees Celsius, and the vertical difference in atmospheric wind speed is small. Globally, tropical cyclones occur most often in late summer and early fall, with September being the most active period for tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones are born in the sea. Due to the high temperature, a large amount of seawater evaporates into the air, forming a low pressure center. In fact, a cyclone is a huge rotating system composed of wind, clouds, and thunderstorms, and the evaporation of water is the driving force that drives this "heat machine" to keep running. A typhoon is forming. Warm ocean water evaporates, absorbing heat and cooling the surrounding area, drawing more heat into the center of the storm. The Center for Atmospheric Research estimates that a tropical cyclone can release 2×10 20 joules of energy every day, which is equivalent to detonating a 10 million-ton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes. This cycle makes the storm stronger and stronger, until it loses the giant "charger" of warm water after making landfall, and the wind begins to taper off. So, in theory, rising sea surface temperatures could lead to stronger hurricanes. Emanuel warned that severe storms could become more frequent and more destructive due to higher air and ocean temperatures due to global warming. National Geographic photographer Erin Trieb captured the flooded streets as Hurricane Harvey caused flooding in Texas in 2017. Photo: ERIN TRIEB, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC But this prediction is not conclusive, and the scientific community has been controversial in recent years, and there is no scientific consensus on the link between global warming and tropical cyclones. Some scientists believe that climate warming may increase the precipitation in storms, thereby slowing down the pace of storms. According to a 2012 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, the frequency of global tropical cyclones may also decrease in the future, or remain largely unchanged. Reference: -natural-disaster -science "China Geography" September issue

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