Member login - User registration - Set as home page - Add to collection - Site map A "spiky-mouthed rat" appeared in Inner Mongolia, with a heartbeat of 1,200 beats per minute, a poison expert in the lactation world!

A "spiky-mouthed rat" appeared in Inner Mongolia, with a heartbeat of 1,200 beats per minute, a poison expert in the lactation world

Time:2023-02-03 11:18:44 author:Small size Read:983次
A "spiky-mouthed rat" appeared in Inner Mongolia, with a heartbeat of 1,200 beats per minute, a poison expert in the lactation world

Insect-eating rats found in Inner Mongolia

On the afternoon of September 10, a special scene occurred in Kailu County, Inner Mongolia: a policeman squatted by the roadside of the farmers market , put a heatstroke "rat" in a plastic box, sent it to a shady place, and bought mineral water to cool it down. People passing by saw this scene full of question marks, aren't rats four pests, why are the police taking care of them so carefully? The police explained: "This is not a mouse, but a national protected animal." "Don't think it looks like a mouse, but it has nothing to do with a mouse. It is a shrew (qú jīng), because its The name is too uncommon, let's call it 'insect-eating rat'." The police pointed to its nose and feet, "Look, a rat's mouth is blunt and round, but an insect-eating rat's mouth is smaller than that of an insect-eating rat. The mouse is much sharper, and it has five toes on its front feet, the mouse has only four fingers, and the mouse has a long tail, but the tail of the insect-eating mouse is only about half of the body. Comparing these features, you can distinguish a mouse It’s different from the insect-eating mice.” Because the insect-eating mice are very similar to mice, they are often mistaken for mice, and they do not escape as fast as mice, so they are often hanged by people to show the public. The injustice is not white, the insect-eating rat is actually a kind of beneficial animal, which has a positive effect on the agricultural economy. Because there are two odor glands on both sides of the ribs of the insect-eating mouse, it emits an unpleasant odor all the year round, so it is also called "stinky mouse" and "point-mouthed mouse". The police caught a locust, and the little guy immediately grabbed the locust and began to feast on it. "Insect-eating rats are not like rats that need to grind their teeth and eat wood and wires, which can easily cause economic losses. Moreover, they are a kind of Carnivores have no interest in rice, vegetables, melons and fruits, but feed on animals such as mice, cockroaches, insects, etc. Not only are they not the four pests, but they will help us get rid of the four pests." Soon, this insect-eating animal The rat finished eating the locust and regained its vitality. The police guessed that it should have accidentally run to the concrete road and then fainted from heat stroke, so they gently put the insect-eating rat back into the grass, and the little guy burrowed into the grass. Disappeared in the grass.

The world's smallest mammal

The insectivorous rat was born in the Cretaceous period tens of millions of years ago. It is the oldest placental animal in the world. From this point of view, it is the ancestor of most advanced mammals today, and has an important position in the evolutionary history of mammals. At the same time, they are also the smallest mammals in the world. Among the shrew animals, the largest is the aquatic shrew, but it is only 15 centimeters in length, while the smallest is the little shrew. The adult shrew is only 3 centimeters in size, and its average weight is only 1.8 grams. What is this concept? It is only the size of a human thumb, and a spoonful of white sugar weighs 5 grams, so it only weighs half a spoonful of white sugar. And their cubs are only 0.2 grams, which is not an exaggeration to say that they are as light as a feather. However, there are many unexpected and magical things in this small and exquisite body.

Super big eater, 1200 heartbeats per minute

Insect-eating rats are the smallest mammals in the world, so let's start with this little one. Because of their small size, the food intake of insectivorous rats becomes very large. They can eat 3 times their own body weight in a day. Converted to human beings, it is hundreds of kilograms of food, and they will die. If a few hours If they can't eat, they will starve to death. This is because, as a mammal, it must maintain its own body temperature. The smaller the size of the animal, the greater the ratio of body surface area to volume, which leads to the rapid loss of heat. In order to maintain body temperature, insectivorous rats must constantly search for prey as soon as they become active at night. When they sleep during the day, they will also drop their body temperature to 25 degrees Celsius, their heartbeat and breathing will be greatly reduced, and they will almost become a cold zombie. In order to digest food in a short period of time to provide itself with heat, insectivorous rats also have the fastest metabolic rate in the world. The normal heart rate of human beings is 60 to 100 beats per minute, but its heart beats 1200 times per minute, which is 12 times that of human beings. This is a real "heart beating". In order to transport oxygen faster and supply the whole body, insectivorous rats need to breathe 850 times per minute, 56 times that of humans! They also have three times more red blood cells in their blood than we do. However, the intense metabolism not only makes them have to rush for food every day, but also causes their lifespan to shorten rapidly. Generally, the lifespan of insectivorous rats is only 14 months, and only a few can live to 16 months. Nature blesses them or curses them. Insect-eating rats are not very big, but they are able to prey on animals that are generally larger than them, and naturally have their unique skills. That is toxin. There are countless poisonous animals in the world, but it is extremely rare among mammals with poisonous glands. In addition to insect-eating rats, there are only a few species such as slow loris, bats and platypus. They can pass the grooved teeth. The poisonous saliva is injected into the prey. The toxin of the insect-eating rat will lower the blood pressure of the rat within a minute, slow down the heartbeat, and the entire rat will be paralyzed and paralyzed, and it can only be captured. If you are bitten by the insect-eating rat in the process of catching the insect-eating rat, it will also cause the arm to become hot and swollen, causing severe pain. So what to do in winter when food is scarce? Despite their short lifespan, insect-eating rats also need to survive the winter. Usually they have to run around non-stop just to survive. Will they starve to death if they can't find food in winter? This is another special feature of insectivorous rats, they can lose 20% of their brains in winter.

For winter, lose one-fifth of your brain

The brain is like a sophisticated machine, which makes it more fragile than other organs, you Can it be imagined that the human brain loses 20% during the winter and grows back in the spring? Insect-eating mice have this magical ability. The young of insect-eating mice are born in early summer, and then grow rapidly. By the end of summer, their brains and skulls begin to shrink, and the weight of their brains has been reduced until the second. In February of this year, their brain weight will drop a full 20%. In addition to this, their average skull volume was reduced by 15%, the vertebrae were shortened, and organs such as the heart and lungs were also shrunk. X-rays showed that the insectivorous rat’s bone shrinkage was likely because the tissue between its joints was absorbed by the body. Now, in order to survive the cruel winter, this is the real magic of shrinking bones. The brain is a large energy consumer in the living body. The human brain consumes 20% of the energy consumed, while the brain weight of insectivorous rats accounts for 2.6% of the body weight, which is very close to that of humans. By shrinking their brains, insectivorous rats were able to effectively reduce their energy expenditure, although this reduced their gray matter, making their already poor IQ even worse. However, in spring, its brain will magically grow back, and its shrunken body will begin to recover, and then it will begin to prepare for breeding the next generation.

The "keel" on the back

In 1910, someone in the Democratic Republic of Congo told a story to Western scientists: There is an animal that looks like a The grey rat was about the same, but even a 60kg adult man stood on its back and it survived unscathed. This animal is the "hero shrew" under the shrew family. This is not a nickname. Their scientific name is really called this. Scientists are of course skeptical about this description. After time entered modern times, some scientists scanned insectivorous rats with X-rays and found that their spines are truly unique in the world. It has thousands of tiny bumps on its spine, which are tightly clasped together like fingers. The entire spine is really thick and large relative to their tiny bodies, and it looks like a legendary "keel". Insect-eating rat's spine This special vertebra gives the insect-eating mouse super strong spine strength and flexibility, and there are very, very thick and dense spongy bones in its vertebrae, which can make its vertebrae stronger. and toughness. But why insectivorous rats evolved such strange and tough vertebrae remains unanswered. Compared with other animals, the shrew's spine is small, but it hides all kinds of peculiar skills and unsolved mysteries, waiting for scientists to solve it. References "Night Killers - Shrews" Wu Yuemei "Special Small Mammals - Shrews" Chen Shunde "Have one-fifth of your brain lost after winter? It doesn't matter, they can grow back again" Song Zhihui "This mouse-like animal has a unique spine, and a man stands on it unharmed"


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