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Shaking the Himalayas?

Time:2022-11-29 15:40:51 author:Mammal Read:564次
Shaking the Himalayas?

"There are 7 areas in the Himalayas with accumulated energy, and each release can produce an earthquake of at least magnitude 8.4. This energy will exceed that of the largest thermonuclear weapon in history." The Minute Himalayas Earthquake, in geological terms, is a 2016 scientific forecast by a research team at Oregon State University. Their view is that the latest earthquake mapping of the Himalayas in Kashmir, between Pakistan and India, shows that a massive earthquake is brewing in the region that could endanger the lives of up to a million people. The study was published in the prestigious journal of the Geological Society of the Americas. "We found that the Ryasi fault is one of several active faults in Kashmir, but the recent geological record shows that there has been no earthquakes here for a long time," said Jan Gaviyo, who led the study. "This means that once released, the force will be very strong enough to cause a massive earthquake," Gaviyo said. "It's not a question of whether it will happen, but a question of when." He believes that once the earthquake occurs, the destructive power will be far greater than that of the 2005 earthquake. In December 2012, scientists from Stanford University in the United States also said that through a study of the geological features and activities of the Himalayas and the Pacific Northwest (referring to the northwestern United States and the southwestern region of Canada), it was found that these regions may experience major events. earthquake. Warren Caldwell, a doctoral student in geophysics at Stanford University, analyzed seismic data from 20 seismometers that his colleagues at India's National Institute of Geophysics had installed across the Himalayas two years ago. of. Manang, Nepal, the sun shines on the peaks of the Himalayas. PHOTO: DONALD MIRALLE/GETTY LUMIX The Himalayas were formed by the collision of the Indian and Asian plates and are still active for this reason. The Indian plate is subducting beneath the Asian plate, and scientists are beginning to study the complexities of this collision zone—especially the main Himalayan thrust fault, which separates the two plates—in more detail. These data reflect that, as previously inferred, the reverse fault separating the two plates dips slightly to the north by 2 to 4 degrees, but it also shows that a portion of the reverse fault dips more strongly (15 degrees down), the length up to 20 kilometers. Such dips have been hypothesized to be the nucleation points for large earthquakes in the Himalayas. While Caldwell emphasized that his research focused on imaging the reverse fault separating the two plates, rather than predicting earthquakes, he noted that the main Himalayan reverse fault has historically been a source of earthquakes measuring 8 to 9 on the Richter scale every hundreds of years. The culprit. A study published in Nature Communications in 2019 made a similar point. There are usually two types of earthquakes in the Himalayas, one is a moderate earthquake with a magnitude of about 7, and the other is a very large earthquake with a magnitude greater than 8. Even though there is little difference between magnitude 8 and magnitude 7, the magnitude of the Richter scale rises by one level, and the energy difference is about 31.7 times, so a magnitude 8 earthquake is much larger than a magnitude 7 earthquake. The 2015 Nepal earthquake was the most terrifying disaster for mankind. It was actually a moderate earthquake in terms of energy level. The researchers used numerical simulations to find that the tension will be released at the location of a moderate earthquake, but the tension in the surrounding location actually increases, and the more energy it gathers, the more it will erupt at one time in the form of a huge earthquake. In Kathmandu, Nepal, the 2015 earthquake shook the buildings around the temple to rubble. PHOTO: NIRANJAN SHRESTHHA, AP A major earthquake occurs only once every five or six hundred years. In the past 500 years, there have only been two earthquakes in the Himalayas large enough to crack the surface, which is not a good phenomenon. It shows that tension has accumulated in many places and is not released. Faults can't release tension on their own, and it takes a big earthquake to break out, and the result is upside-down. The researchers analyzed the frequency of earthquakes and plate collisions that have occurred throughout history and found that seven regions of the Himalayas have accumulated energy that, if released, could each produce an earthquake of at least magnitude 8.4. This energy would exceed that of the largest thermonuclear weapon in history. And, there's the creepy possibility that tension in both regions triggers at the same time, creating an even bigger earthquake. The study estimates that if a mega-quake of magnitude 8 or higher hits the Himalayas, the death toll will reach an unprecedented scale. The Himalayas are one of the most geologically active regions in the world. Here, the Indian plate is constantly moving northward, colliding with the Eurasian plate, squeezing each other to generate tension, and accumulating in the crust, and the sudden release of tension produces an earthquake. A man stands among the rubble caused by the earthquake in Sankhu, Nepal. Photo: NAVESH CHITRAKAR, REUTERS On the boundary between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate, earthquakes of magnitude 4 and above occur about 300 times a year, and this is the area where earthquakes are most harmful to humans. For example, the 8.5-magnitude Haiyuan earthquake in 1920 killed 230,000 people; the 7.6-magnitude earthquake in Pakistan in 2005 and the 7.9-magnitude Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 killed about 70,000 people; The largest inland earthquake recorded, the surface damage in the epicenter area reached the maximum intensity XII, and the land of hundreds of thousands of square kilometers was instantly changed beyond recognition. The Wenchuan earthquake and the 2015 Nepal earthquake were caused by the collision of these two plates. On April 25, 2015, a magnitude 7.8 (moment magnitude) earthquake (referred to as the Gorkha earthquake) occurred in the Gorkha region of Nepal in the central Himalayas. The 2015 Nepal earthquake killed thousands and collapsed tens of thousands of homes. The 1950 Assam earthquake occurred at the southern foot of the Himalayas, on the Medog fault of the Yarlung Zangbo fault zone in the East Himalayan structure on the east side of Nanga Bawa Peak. The largest earthquake known to have been caused by the collision of the edges of aggregated plates, the sixth largest earthquake in the world in the 20th century, and the ninth largest earthquake in the world on record. About 5,500 people died. An article titled "Uncovering the Great Himalayas Earthquake" on the website of the Second Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Comprehensive Expedition Research Website of the Institute of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences pointed out: "From the tectonic background of the entire Eurasian plate, the seismic activity in the collision zone between the Pacific plate and the Eurasian plate The frequency is much higher than that of the Himalayas-Tibet Plateau (Fig. 1). However, from the perspective of seismic hazard, the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau region ranks first in the world in terms of direct property damage and casualties caused by seismic activity (Fig. 2). ). Figure 1: The distribution of earthquakes with magnitude above 6 in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas since 1970, the size of the circles represent different magnitudes Source: website of the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences Seismic map sources with a depth of less than 70 kilometers: This article on the website of the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences also pointed out that it is extremely difficult to predict earthquakes and collect seismic data, and we cannot accurately predict when a major earthquake will occur. There are still many unsolved mysteries about the Ka earthquake, such as why the earthquake did not break south to the surface. These questions may remain until we observe a large earthquake of magnitude 8 or higher again. If you read this article "In reading "Let's go↓


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